US Soldiers Fighting in Russia – The End of the “Polar Bear Expedition” I THE GREAT WAR May 1919

The so called Allied intervention into the Russian Civil War suffered from no clear operational goals and mandate and when US President Woodrow Wilson pulled out the American soldiers that were fighting in Northern Russia in May 1919, the operation suffered another setback. Public pressure against US foreign intervention was increasing now that Germany had been beaten and many people didn’t understand what American soldiers were doing in Russia anyway. At the same time Winston Churchill and his supporters maintained that it was vital to defeat the Bolsheviks in Russia once and for all.

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» SOURCES
Crownover, Roger. The United States Intervention in North Russia, 1918-1919 : The Polar Bear Odyssey. Edwin Mellen Press, 2001.

Wright, Damien. Churchill’s Secret War With Lenin: British and Commonwealth Military Intervention in the Russian Civil War, 1918-20, Helion and Company, 2017

Long, John W. “American Intervention in Russia: the North Russian Expedition, 1918-1919,” in Arthur Dudden, ed. American empire in the Pacific: from trade to strategic balance 1700 – 1922 (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2004): 321-344.

Mawdsley Evan. The Russian Civil War, Pegasus Books, 2019

Moore, Joel. The History of the American Expedition Fighting the Bolsheviki Campaigning in North Russia 1918-1919 (1920)

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Presented by: Jesse Alexander
Written by: Jesse Alexander
Director: Toni Steller & Florian Wittig
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