In 1848, a strange skull was discovered on the military outpost of Gibraltar. It was undoubtedly human, but also displayed some of the heavy features of an ape, including distinct brow ridges and a projecting face. Just what was this ancient creature? And when had it lived? As more remains were discovered, one thing became clear: this creature had once lived right across Europe. The remains were named “Homo neanderthalensis” (Neanderthal man), and it became clear that it was an ancient and very close relative of anatomically modern humans.