Why Some Molecules Have Evil Twins

A tiny change in a molecule’s geometry completely changes its effects on the human body.
How We Made This Video (Ever & David Talk About Drugs):

March for Science website:

Thanks also to our supporters on
___________________________________________

If you want to learn more about this topic, start your googling with:
Enantiomers: Molecules that are mirror images of each other.
Chirality: A geometric property that makes a molecule non-superimposable on its mirror image.
Methamphetamine: A central nervous system stimulant.
Levmetamfetamine: The new name for the left-handed version of methamphetamine, which acts as a vasoconstrictor.
Carvone: A terpenoid found in many essential oils.

___________________________________________

Credits (and Twitter handles):
Script Writer: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg)
Video Illustrator: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar)
Video Narrator: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar)
With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Kate Yoshida, Emily Elert, Peter Reich
Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder:

_________________________________________

Like our videos?
Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube:
Support us on Patreon:

Also, say hello on:
Facebook:
Twitter:
And find us on itunes:
___________________________________________

If you liked this week’s video, we think you might also like:
Breaking Bad:

___________________________________________

Image credits:

Mint – Darya Pino

Black Licorice – US FDA (Public Domain)

Facepalm statue – Alex E. Proimos

_________________________________________

References:

Lodish H, Berk A, Zipursky SL., et al. “The Making or Breaking of Covalent Bonds Involves Large Energy Changes”. Molecular Cell Biology. Section 2:1 (22). Retrieved from:

Wallach, J. “A Comprehensive Guide to the Clandestine Chemistry of ‘Breaking Bad’”
Vice. (2013). Retrieved from:

Thanks to the following experts for their input and feedback:

Jason Wallach, Vice writer and chemist

Donna Nelson, University of Oklahoma chemistry professor and technical advisor to ‘Breaking Bad’

Adam Braunschweig, CUNY chemistry professor (

Justin Dragna, University of Texas chemistry professor