Estonia and Latvia Fight For Independence – Russian Civil War Baltic Front I THE GREAT WAR June 1919
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Estonia and Latvia had declared their independence from Russia in the late 1918 chaos. Over the spring of 1919 both countries’ new governments needed to defend that independence not only against the Russian Bolsheviks, there was also a violent internal struggle about the future of these countries. The Baltic Germans didn’t want to give up their social status and the even the anti-bolshevik Russians considered the Baltics as part of the Russian Empire.
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Bennett, Geoffrey Martin. Cowan’s War. The Story of British Naval Operations in the Baltic, 1918-1920 (London: Collins, 1964)
Chester, Geoff. “When the Capital of Latvia was a Ship Called Saratov” (Deep Baltic, 2016).
Fletcher, William A. The British Navy In the Baltic, 1918-1920. Its Contribution to the Independence of the Baltic Nations. Journal of Baltic Studies, Vol. 7, No. 2, Summer 1976, p. 134-144.
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Jēkabsons, Ēriks: Cēsis, Battle of, in: 1914-1918-online. International Encyclopedia of the First World War, ed. by Ute Daniel, Peter Gatrell, Oliver Janz, Heather Jones, Jennifer Keene, Alan Kramer, and Bill Nasson, issued by Freie Universität Berlin, Berlin 2014-10-08.
Ibid. The Latvian War of Independence 1918-1920 and the United States. In: Fleishman L., Weiner A. (ed). War, Revolution, and Governance: The Baltic Countries in the Twentieth Century (Boston, 2018).
Kirby, David. The Baltic World 1772–1993. Europe’s Northern Periphery in an Age of Change. (London: Longman, 1995).
Raun, Toivo U. Estonia and the Estonians, 2nd ed. (Stanford: Hoover, 2002).
Sammartino, Annemarie H. The Impossible Border: Germany and the East, 1914–1922 (Cornell, 2014).
Sullivan, Charles L. “The 1919 German Campaign in the Baltic. The Final Phase.” In The Baltic States in Peace and War, 1917–1945, ed. V. Stanley Vardys and Romuald J. Misiunas, 31-42. (University Park: Penn State, 1978).
Tammela, Mari-Leen. Saaremaa Uprising. Estonica (Estonian Institute, 2012).
Uustalu, Evald. The History of Estonian People (London: Boreas, 1952).
Von Rauch, Georg. The Baltic States. The Years of Independence 1917-1940 (London: Hurst, 1995).
Smele, Jonathan. The ‘Russian’ Civil Wars, 1916-1926: Ten Years That Shook the World (Oxford University Press: 2016)
Palmer, Alan. Northern Shores: A History of the Baltic Sea and Its Peoples (John Murray, 2005)
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Presented by: Jesse Alexander
Written by: Jesse Alexander
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